vim typically supports the :syntax on command, but I just found out about the :colorscheme option. But what I can’t find documented anywhere is what color schemes are options.
On CentOS 5.3, they’re in /usr/share/vim/vim70/colors/ and include blue, darkblue, default, delek, desert, elflord, evening, koehler, morning, murphy, pablo, peachpuff, ron, shine, slate, torte, and zellner. The page is extremely resource intensive since it seems to have hundreds of iframes, but this page [may crash your browser?] shows many, many other color schemes.